In international relations, adjudication involves the referral of a dispute to an impartial third-party tribunal—normally either an international court or an arbitration tribunal—for a binding decision. However, the state or states concerned must give their consent to participate either through special agreement or existing treaty. Referral to an international court for judicial settlement involves a permanent judicial body, which means that the method for selecting judges and procedures of the court are already established. Probably the best known such court is the International Court of Justice. For more on referral to an arbitration tribunal, see Arbitration.

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